More Brain Differences Seen Between Girls, Boys With ADHD

Proposed_Symptoms_of_ADHD

Girls and boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder don’t just behave differently. Parts of their brains look different, too. Now, researchers can add the cerebellum to that mismatch.

For boys, symptoms of the disorder tend to include poor impulse control and disruptive behavior. Girls are more likely to have difficulty staying focused on one task. Studies show that those behavioral differences are reflected in brain structure.  Boys with ADHD, for example, are more likely than girls to display abnormalities in premotor and primary motor circuits, pediatric neurologist Stewart Mostofsky of Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore has reported previously.

Now, Mostofsky and colleagues have looked at the cerebellum, which plays a role in coordinating movement. He reported the new findings March 25 at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society’s annual meeting in San Francisco.

Girls ages 8 to 12 with ADHD showed differences in the volume of various regions of their cerebellum compared with girls without the condition, MRI scans revealed. A similar comparison of boys showed abnormalities, too. But those differences didn’t match what’s seen between girls, preliminary analyses suggest. So far, researchers have looked at 18 subjects in each of the four groups, but plan to quintuple that number in the coming months.

Differences seem most prominent in areas of the cerebellum that control higher-order motor functions, Mostofsky said. Those circuits help regulate attention and plan out behavior, versus directing basics like hand-eye coordination. That could help explain why ADHD affects girls’ behavior differently than boys’.

Source : Sciencenews

A War on Science

Why does society still reject science?

Science has done a lot for the world. And when we say a lot, we mean a whole lot. Cars, iPhones, electricity, medicine, Hubble – you can thank scientists for all those things. Not to mention its involvement in helping us explore the Universe, and understand our place in it. And yet we still see people reject science every day. As the latest episode of AsapSCIENCE explains, we’re in the middle of a war against science. And it’s been raging for a long time.

Since humans first evolved, science has consistently improved our lives, fuelling the enlightenment era, the industrial revolution, and now the digital age. But society has often been at odds with science. So much so, in fact, that Italian astronomer Giordano Bruno was burnt at the stake in 1600 for suggesting that Earth wasn’t at the centre of the Universe. And Galileo was put under house arrest for supporting the theory.

Continue reading “A War on Science”

Being Overweight Can Increase The Rate Of Developing Cancer

A meta-analysis of more than 200 studies shows that being overweight could increase cancer, including colon, breast, pancreas and ovary cancer.  Based on previous figures from two leading charities, in 2035, almost ¾ of people are expected to be overweight and 700,000 new cases of obesity-related cancer in 20 years time.

A recent study proves that there is a strong link between excess body fat and an increased risk of 11 cancers: colon, rectum, endometrium, breast, ovary, kidney, pancreas, gastric cardia, biliary tract system and certain cancers of the oesophagus and bone marrow.

Marc Gunter, a co-author of the research from the International Agency for Research on Cancer said, “I think now the public and physicians really need to pay attention to obesity with respect to cancer. Telling people to avoid being overweight not only reduces their risk of, say, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it also reduces their risk of many different cancers.”

Another meta-analysis on Continue reading “Being Overweight Can Increase The Rate Of Developing Cancer”

Seven Earth-sized planets orbit nearby supercool star

022217_ay_7-planet_main1_free

A nearby ultracool star harbors seven Earth-sized planets, three with orbits that potentially put them in a habitable zone. That makes the system, around a star called TRAPPIST-1, a prime target in the search for signs of alien life. Its discovery also hints that many more cousins of Earth may be out there than astronomers thought.

“It’s rather stunning that the system has so many Earth-sized planets,” says Drake Deming, an astronomer at the University of Maryland in College Park. It seems like every stable spot where a planet could be, there is an Earth-sized one. “That bodes well for finding habitable planets,” he says.

Michaël Gillon, an astrophysicist at University of Liège in Belgium, and colleagues announced last year that they had found three Earth-sized planets around TRAPPIST-1, an ultracool dwarf star previously called 2MASS J23062928−0502285 (SN: 05/28/16, p. 6). The Continue reading “Seven Earth-sized planets orbit nearby supercool star”

NASA Spots Mysterious Spray of Organic Material on Our Biggest Asteroid

NASA has announced that signs of organic material have been spotted on the surface of the Solar System’s largest asteroid, the dwarf planet Ceres, adding to the long list of rocks in space containing complex, carbon-based molecules.

It seems like every other day astronomers are finding organic molecules on some asteroid, comet, or meteorite, so the discovery itself might not seem all that exciting – but it’s what the orbiter didn’t see that adds an intriguing level of mystery.

The material was spotted in and around the crater Ernutet on Ceres’ northern hemisphere, using NASA’s Dawn orbiting spacecraft.

Finding evidence of organic molecules on a major asteroid from an orbiting craft is a first in space exploration, and hints at exciting things to come.

“This is the first clear Continue reading “NASA Spots Mysterious Spray of Organic Material on Our Biggest Asteroid”